cat abuse china. Every June, in the south east city of Yulin, thousands of dogs are slaughtered. Two Chinese students studying in the UK have been under fire recently due to allegedly cat abuse. While each has their own unique contributions to offer the world, they are similar in many ways. The abuse and cruelty suffered by dogs and cats here is beyond belief, and Animals Asia's specialist dog and cat welfare team in China is working hard to end this horror. Two weeks ago, I wrote about animal cruelty in China, specifically the careless, and sometimes predatory, practices of dog shelters and the belief among some butchers that causing animals as much. Fully conscious dog skinned alive. The cat owner, a 28-year-old woman who lives in Chak Fai House in Tin Chak Estate in Tin Shui Wai, was arrested over cruelty to animals on Monday evening. Dog carcasses piled up for a winter solstice feast in Guizhou, China Blowtorched alive at dog meat festival. Perhaps the cat was dragged into the building where she was crushed. The 20-second-long video filmed by a Taiwanese student named Chen, showed his fellow student, of Chinese nationality, named Lin. He is facing charges of animal cruelty and remains in detention. The videos are all unlisted, though he created a playlist where they can be viewed. China dad tries to beat daughter's puppy to death over mounting vet bill When the staff at the pet shop refused to give her a refund and rejected her requests for free items such as cat towers and. 中国 China 猫 Cat Abuse by Wm Kai Stephanos © 2008 非常に悲しい. The sound in the video is the dog wailing and the laughter of men. Published on 12/27/2018 at 5:29 PM Walking into a dark warehouse near Tianjin, China, earlier this month, animal advocates were hit with piercing cries echoing throughout the building. In addition to protests against the tradition of eating an animal that is cherished, even in China, as a family pet and companion, critics claim that the dogs are illegally obtained, usually. CHINA: Investigating Since 2013. It's time to put a stop to this nightmare! Sign this petition to call on the Chinese government to put an end to this brutal treatment of animals - and to introduce animal rights. China’s Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan have also passed animal welfare or anti-animal abuse legislation, including provisions variously outlawing the consumption of cats and dogs, making it illegal to abandon pets, and establishing penalties for animal abuse. In a rare case of justice for animals in China, and due to the wide outcry . Chinese social media users are buzzing with outrage at news that a "feline house" in Tianjin has been keeping cats to be sold for human consumption. The question of whether China pushes athletes beyond acceptable limits has been raised several times, including by Matthew Pinsent, who said he was shocked at the abuse of young gymnasts on a. Big Names in China Stand Up for Animals. Cats and dogs have been around for many centuries. They have a zero-tolerance strategy but that zero tolerance applies to cats and dogs but not people. Driving with animals in the trunk would run afoul of anti-animal cruelty legislation in several countries around the world. ” Here are 10 of PETA’s most shocking videos: This may make you want to put down that drumstick and pick up some vegan buffalo wings instead. ANIMAL lovers are outraged after a Chinese pet owner reportedly paid £1000 on plastic surgery to make her cat's eyes look more appealing, . The helpless cat was found by its owner with broken bones, missing teeth, and claws. College student expelled for cat torture videos. This time, the movement has a powerful ally: . YAWATA, Kyoto Prefecture--Tamami Masuyama was once thought of as a godsend for willingly taking in unwanted pet dogs and cats from their . Three girls trample kitten TO DEATH with bare feet If a video was made (and I believe it was), it is an example of a crush video and perhaps that is what they were making for financial profit. More than 90% of the pet products tested were made in China. The 'zero' means zero life if … Continue reading →. たぶん上海で撮影したと思うのですけど、旅行中にどこかの市場でずっと猫の鳴き声がするので、近づいてみたら、猫が泣いておりました。愛玩. This man has obviously done this heinous act many times before. Getty Images offers exclusive rights-ready and premium royalty-free analog, HD, and 4K video of the highest quality. In May 2013, dozens of stray cats were abused and slaughtered in a residential district in Beijing, with the fur of the animals almost completely plucked out. Video: Two men who filmed themselves killing a cat by scalding it with boiling water are ordered to volunteer in an animal shelter. A young woman who killed and dismembered a kitten and posted the bloody pictures on the Internet has angered many in China, a country that has witnessed a host of animal abuse cases in recent years. A university student in Shandong Province has been expelled from school after videos of him mercilessly torturing and murdering cats surfaced on the Chinese internet, causing an outpouring of anger and revulsion, as well as feverish calls for stricter laws against animal cruelty. Cruelty to Dogs and Cats in Asia. “It is the consensus of the whole society to say no to cruelty against animals, but incidents of cruelty and killing of animals still occur from time to time,” the broadcaster said in an article published on. Having been madly in love with dogs since I was a young boy, I certainly understand that. Just like there are dog people in th. The miniature poodles were narrowly rescued from China's booming dog meat trade, where they faced having legs hacked off while alive, then blowtorched. HONG KONG, Oct 23 (SCMP): China’s state broadcaster CCTV called for legislation against animal abuse after news of a Chinese security guard pouring boiling water over a pregnant cat went viral. China gets a lot of flak for the way some people treat animals, but animal abuse isn't a reflection of Chinese culture as a whole, . Saving animals from China’s dog and cat meat trade. By Aristos Georgiou On 12/11/18 at 12:54 PM . Cats have been each others companions for centuries of documented history. A string of recent incidents has refocused China's attention on animal abuse. com, said an organized group in China hires girls to abuse small animals and then sells the videos abroad. According to CCTV, the cat abuser, an employee of a security company in Taiyuan, in northern China's Shanxi province, has been fired by his employer and taken into police custody. Scientists investigating the severe acute respiratory syndrome (Sars) virus believe they have solved the mystery of its origin after. The investigators found horrors beyond their worst imaginings and concluded, “Conditions on Chinese fur farms make a mockery of the most elementary animal welfare standards. In April, a university student in the eastern Shandong province was expelled amid an uproar after posting videos of himself torturing and killing stray cats on social media. by: helen h; 27 SUPPORTERS 1,000 GOAL we in america will stop buying chinese prodouts iwill get the wholke world agginst you. According to Chinese reports dog eaters in southern parts of China like eating “crispy skin live dog” which is dogs roasted alive. Cat abuse case outrages Chinese Updated: 2014-05-28 15:43 Stories of animal abuse have made headlines in China in recent years, causing a wave of public fury. China has no animal rights protections whatsoever. Abuse, Neglect, Slaughter and any other form of Animal abuse. About a week ago, several posts with . LITTLE ITALY, Manhattan (WABC) -- New video shows the man police say sealed two cats inside of buckets and abandoned them outside an animal shelter in Lower Manhattan. The cats who were allegedly tortured have all been rescued, Phi Phi police . A period drama in China was forced to publish videos proving a cat was healthy after its death scene was deemed by fans to be too realistic . “It’s the consensus of the whole society to oppose animal abuse, but it’s only at the moral level,” CCTV. China’s state broadcaster CCTV called for legislation against animal abuse after news of a Chinese security guard pouring boiling water over a pregnant cat went viral on social media. Li posted horrific pictures of the dismembered cat later that night to Sina Weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter. Students charged after cat abuse video shared on social. Although most people in China do not consume . The House also passed a nonbinding resolution urging other nations to end the dog and cat meat trade. Amazing women in China fighting dog meat industry & saving them! Raisinsrabble. Feb 05, 2014 · In many ways, the animal welfare movement in China is maturing far faster than it ever did in the West. The dog and cat meat trade in China is, to a. Help end the horrors of the animal abuse in China. Some are abandoned pets, left to fend for themselves after being dumped by . Dogs and cats killed for fur in China are often cherished companions. China: Dog Burned As Men Laugh. 14 Charity Harbin SHS rescues and re-homes. Canine meat is considered a delicacy in China, where about £10m worth of dogs and £4m cats are sold for their meat annually. Stories 1 - 20 | Next >> China Isn't Happy With Keanu Reeves. Cat abuse in china CHINA: Investigating Since 2013. There are no penalties for abusing animals on fur farms in China—farmers can house and slaughter animals however they see fit. has been recognised in legislation and explores the core legislative protections granted to animals, such as the prohibition of animal cruelty. China has no laws against animal abuse. In restaurants and at dog-meat markets, dog meat lovers often stand and watch the animals of their choice being tortured prepared to their taste. They are trucked for miles in wire crates and skinned alive. A series of brutal videos showing the mistreatment of cats and dogs have surfaced on the Chinese internet in recent years, . However, millions of stolen pets and stray dogs in China continue to suffer terrible abuse for this trade and are killed in horrific ways. Pet owner from China was travelling and had to watch the live footage in tears · She said her flatmate kicked the cat like a penalty ball and . petition: Fight For Animal Abuse Laws In China. She was detained at Yuen Long Police. "The problem of dog and cat theft is significant in China, and often angry pet "These people are the least tolerant of animal abuse, . the fur in the US comes from China, where millions of dogs and cats are often bled . Aosom specializes in Outdoor Living, Home Decor, Sporting Goods, Health & Beauty and more. to factory farms and abattoirs – and all the cruelty involved. Cats who do live in small groups still rely on stability and familiarity with the other cats to get along, and cat cafes who act as sort of free-range adoption centers don't give them the opportunity to build up relationships before the dynamic — and the cats — change. Animal cruelty has no place in our society and nobody should want to see a sentient being experience unnecessary pain or suffering, . And kitten abuse, with a disabled kitten abandoned on the streets. Animals Asia has rescued many dogs, cats, puppies and kittens who have suffered horrendous abuse at the hands of people who see them as 'pests' — such as puppy abuse, when the dog pictured below was scalded with boiling water and thrown from a high rise building. Gruesome cat abuse video stirs calls for stronger animal cruelty laws in China The recent killing of the pregnant cat has renewed calls to punish animal cruelty in China. Cases of animal abuse have prompted public outrage in China, where pet ownership is on the rise. It asks the governments of China, . It instead approaches pet ownership primarily as an urban management . He shared pictures of the horrific abuse on the internet. According to Chinese reports the man's accent sounds like he is from Guangxi, but that's not confirmed. More information on this can be found at [email protected] An animal advocate comforts caged dogs at a market near Yulin, China, in June 2020. The government is considering, among other things, a ban on the consumption of dog and cat meat, a culinary specialty in southern China. The country does not have a national law on . The Russian filmed themselves torturing and killing animals. Horrifyingly, they actually celebrate this shame at the . The recent killing of the pregnant cat has renewed calls to punish animal cruelty in China. In April, around one hundred stray dogs were allegedly buried alive in a pit near a garbage dump in Alxa Left Banner, which is under the jurisdiction of Alxa League in north China's. "It is the consensus of the whole society to say no to cruelty against animals, but incidents of cruelty and killing of animals still occur from time to time," the broadcaster said in an article published. WARNING: Viewer Discretion Advised China: fully conscious greyhound dog boiled alive as spectators laugh. China also lacks any sort of national laws regarding animal cruelty, meaning that if you see a dog being mistreated or even killed by its . Many are strays born on the streets. It is a criminal offence to torture animals in Russia and the campaign is calling. Kiki Lin: Student who stuffed cat into jar for 'misbehaving' charged. Starting in 2013, Animal Equality began documenting the cat and dog meat and skin trade. In their lives and their unspeakable. "But because of the legal gap, he will probably not be punished too much," CCTV said. WARNING - GRAPHIC CONTENT: A security guard has caused outrage across China after he poured boiling water over a pregnant cat, resulting in the death of the. By the light of their flashlights, the rescuers peeked inside — and thousands of glowing eyes stared back at them, pleading for help. Millions of stray dogs and cats live on China's streets. It is a war of ideas, attitudes, behaviors and worldviews. Through the years, PETA's shocking videos have exposed the horrific abuse and suffering that animals endure on factory farms, in laboratories, and even in so called "sanctuaries. CCTV Calls for Chinese Animal Abuse Laws. There are some similar rules on the Chinese mainland, such as regulations related to. Cats Protecting Babies Videos Compilation 2019 Cat Loves Babies - cat, ragdoll, bengal cat, british shorthair, persian cat, savannah cat, siamese cat, kittens, sphynx. Our investigators, with the help and support of local activists, have conducted 6 different investigations over the years, documenting the appalling reality for dogs and cats. in rabies control, investigating animal cruelty complaints, enforcing animal laws and ordinances, and helping solve issues involving domestic animals. The brutality of the dog and cat meat trades tarnishes China's global image and reputation, and opinion polls show that most people in Yulin and across China don't eat dogs and cats. Chinese advocates lead the fight against Yulin’s dog meat trade. The girls had buckets with the skinned animals. A couple of Japanese channels uploading videos of cat abuse (GRAPHIC CONTENT WARNING) Found a Youtube channel that's been uploading videos of cats being trapped and killed, along with another one of a cat being beaten to death. Discover these characteristics, and more. Disgusting men pour scalding water on caged cat in torture video. Has anyone noticed Chinese people being really abusive in the way they play with pets? My cat is now off limits if my students come over. What do cat abuse, mascot and cashfiesta have in common?. The Animals Asia Foundation (AAF) is working very hard to try and. Yet approximately 2,000 animals pass through PETA's front door every year and very few make it out alive. China is one of few countries where cat and dog meat-eating remains legal and socially acceptable. There is also horrific abuse in China involved in the dog meat eating trade where their culture believes that 'torture equals taste' and consequently these poor dogs suffer terrible abuse before they are slaughtered. Meanwhile, lawmakers have been drafting the country’s first regulations on animal abuse. The footage shows an attractive-looking woman playing. Greg James Published April 16, 2020. Few things bring out the anger in American animal lovers like China’s cruel treatment of dogs and cats. Claws out over China cat meat scandal. China's state broadcaster CCTV called for legislation against animal abuse after news of a Chinese security guard pouring boiling water over a pregnant cat went viral on social media. Cruelty to a dog or cat is a Class A Misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of up to $1,000 and/or imprisonment up to 6 months. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an organization that publicly claims to represent the best interest of animals. org tested over 400 dog and cat products, including chew toys, stuffed toys, tennis balls, collars, leashes, and beds. It is not the first time that Chinese zoos' treatment of animals have attracted . Dog and cat meat features on menus in a number of Asian countries including North and South Korea, Thailand and China, where an annual dog meat . This time, the movement has a powerful ally: China Central Television (CCTV), the Chinese government's state broadcaster. After the college cat abuse was exposed: the cat abuse group was led by Weibo, some people said that "the most want to abuse the baby" After Shandong University of Technology student Fan Yuanqing's cat abuse incident was exposed, the public's interest in the black industry chain of cat abuse and dog abuse increased. While there are laws against cruelty to animals in Mali, there is still some room for . China is one example of how lax legislations lead to the slaughter of 100,000 dogs, and sometimes cats. Animal Cruelty: Put cat in microwave, Animal cruelty, put cat in microwave, animal abuse, 2013, animal, animals, Crueldad Animal: Mete a su gato a horno de microondas , crueldad animal, gato en microondas, mete a su gato en microondas, 2013, Hassan Hammaoud. Shocking Photos: PETA's Secret Slaughter of Kittens, Puppies. Report Website Abuse Text FOX to 73822 to urge LVMH to ban fur from Louis Vuitton & its other brands today! Animals on fur farms slowly go insane & even self-mutilate from the stress of confinement. The Huanan Seafood Market in Wuhan contains rats, snakes, wolf pups, koalas and other 'exotic' wild animals where they are illegally for . On Monday, a video reporting that a man in Taiyuan in central China's Shanxi province locked a white cat in a cage and poured scalding water over it went viral on social media. Through the years, PETA’s shocking videos have exposed the horrific abuse and suffering that animals endure on factory farms, in laboratories, and even in so called “sanctuaries. Two male college students were charged with offences against the Animal Protection Act after one of them uploaded a video showing the other abusing a pet cat, yesterday, October 28. Chinese man arrested on Phi Phi Island for allegedly torturing stray. The civet cat, a delicacy in China, linked to Sars virus. China's Animal Shelters Can't Cope With the Number of Pets Abandoned The confusion has led to both cruel abandonment of animals and acts . In China and a few other East Asian nations, there is a civil war playing out over the dog and cat meat trade. But legislating to prohibit animal cruelty is an oddly controversial topic in China. Life for dogs and cats in China is dangerous. in Huizhou City in south China's Guangdong Province, beheaded a baby cat in her bathroom on Friday night, less than two weeks after she bought it. Greg James Published October 27, 2020 Read later. China has no animal cruelty laws. Government authorities organise brutal killing campaigns in an attempt to reduce stray dog and cat populations. Video Exposé of Horrific Abuse on Chinese Fur Farms. Our expressions contain references to the following domesticated animals: dogs, cows,. TAIPEI (Taiwan News) — Angry Chinese netizens are calling for justice after a scene of alleged cat cruelty was aired in a recent episode of . Since there are no government standards for hazardous chemicals in pet products, it is not surprising that there were alarming levels of toxic chemicals. While there are tens of millions of dog and cat lovers, their calls for change are often drowned out by a. Hundreds of pet dogs and cats brutally killed in China amid COVID-19 fears Chinese officials have started killing pet cats and dogs even though there is no proof of virus being passed onto animals. He doesn't even flinch as the dog wails in gut wrenching agony! Chinese animal lovers are trying to locate the man's whereabouts, but at this stage they do not know his location. 270p Video: Two men who filmed themselves killing a cat by scalding it with boiling water are ordered to volunteer in an animal shelter when they are freed from jail Animal abusers Larry Rostchild. Chinese state broadcaster CCTV initiated the hashtag “CCTV calls for rapid legislation against. This article contains examples of alleged animal abuse that may act as a trigger or cause distress. The Chinese government has remained reluctant to embrace animal welfare. Instead it promotes a cruelty-free . Find professional Cat Abuse videos and stock footage available for license in film, television, advertising and corporate uses. J ust a day after a horrific story of a Chinese security guard pouring scalding water over a pregnant cat went viral on social media, the call for legislation against animal abuse is top trending on Weibo. China Press reported that the six-minute video, which surfaced on the Internet several months ago, had so far had 37,221 shares on Facebook. Sun Daqiang, a professor of psychology with Beijing Normal University, said that the reason behind animal abuse is that many people cannot find a proper way to channel their suppressed. Dog Cat Fur Trade China Animal Cruelty. Cat abuse case outrages Chinese BEIJING - A young woman who killed and dismembered a kitten and posted the bloody pictures on the Internet has . Since the coronavirus outbreak several cities, led by Shenzhen, have banned eating dogs and cats. animals than do the terms of abuse. Tens of thousands of netizens criticized the student. Dogs and cats are typically bludgeoned to death in front. After a man fatally tortured a pregnant cat with boiling water, many in China are once again calling for authorities to enact animal abuse legislation, with even state broadcaster CCTV joining the chorus. Let us now look at some details. Life for millions of dogs and cats in China is dangerous. About China Abuse In Cat Department of Agriculture announced it was ending the testing - which included feeding cats to other cats - effective immediately. After a man fatally tortured a pregnant cat with boiling water, many in China are once again calling for authorities to enact animal abuse . Snapperfest - Indiana's shameful call to get all drunk and abuse turtles. Although most people in China do not consume dog or cat meat, every year more than 10 million dogs and 4 million cats are killed for their meat and fur in the country. LCA therefore opposes the use of animals in food and clothing production, scientific experimentation, and entertainment. China is believed to be responsible for killing 10 million of the estimated 30 million dogs and 4 million of the 10 million cats slaughtered each year worldwide for human consumption. Animal abuse is on the rise in China and China has no laws against it. Our cameras have repeatedly shown the world the. Li Pingping, a former marketing consultant at Chengzi Culture Communication Co. New investigation from the international animal protection organization Animal Equality shows the cruelty behind the killing of dogs and cats used for their fur in China. Pizza, the 'world's saddest polar bear,' in a mall exhibit. Animals, including dogs and cats, are skinned alive, boiled alive and tortured into unimaginable pain in China. " Here are 10 of PETA's most shocking videos: This may make you want to put down that drumstick and pick up some vegan buffalo wings instead. Greg James Published April 16, 2020 Read later Share this article. Kiki Lin sparked outrage by posting a picture of her cat sealed in a glass jar - but refuses to apologise despite being charged for animal cruelty. Shocking Photos: PETA's Secret Slaughter of Kittens, Puppies. Some of the very first documentation of humans and cats together date back to Ancient Egypt when cats were also their guardians. In April, around one hundred stray dogs were allegedly buried alive in a pit near a garbage dump in Alxa Left Banner, which is under the jurisdiction of Alxa League in north China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Woman who took in unwanted pets arrested over suspected abuse. The dogs and cats that remain are forced to watch as their animal companions are slaughtered, boiled, and skinned. The phenomenon is deeply worrying for animal welfare charities like the RSPCA, who have seen reports of abuse on platforms like Snapchat rise as much as 300 per cent in recent years. Think you know your cat? These cat facts that will blow your mind and make you see cats very differently. Stories of animal abuse have made headlines in China in recent years, causing a wave of public fury. Incredibly, other than food hygiene and safety laws to protect humans, there are no laws in China around the slaughter of animals. Read the latest news reports about cruelty to animals, animal cruelty laws, and other stories of dog and cat abuse on Newser. Some are abandoned pets, left to fend for themselves after being dumped by their owners. Most dogs and cats caught up in China’s meat trade are believed to be strays snatched from the streets and stolen pets, according to HSI. Dec 11, 2018 · Nearly 400 Cats Rescued From Illegal Chinese Slaughterhouse After Tip-off From Heartbroken Pet Owner. 21 October 2020, 9:28 pm · 2-min read. all these words may be deemed harmful in China. But there are widespread credible reports of extreme physical and mental abuse that meet the definition of torture under international human rights law, including the CAT, which mandates that even in exceptional circumstances, states must take measures to prevent “any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is. Cruelty to Dogs and Cats in Asia Life for millions of dogs and cats in China is dangerous. Some common motivations for acts of animal abuse are: ignorance about humane and proper care of animals (very common with neglect) . The Cruel Dog and Cat Meat Trade. With crush websites and the cat and dog meat and fur trade, laws need to be made. The animal abuse story has been a hot topic among China 's Internet users, after shocking images showed a cat with its eye gouged out. have joined forces with Chinese animal welfare activists to raise awareness of animal abuse in China. BEIJING -- Journalist Wang Xiaofeng wrote a satirical essay on his blog last October. Crazy Chinese Cat & Kitten Eating!! Animal Cruelty Asian Meat . UPPER EAST SIDE, Manhattan (WABC) -- A woman's cat viciously burned, beaten, and tortured on the Upper East Side. Under the proposed law, companies or restaurants that sell cat or dog meat could face fines of up to $73,000. The victim cat was cut open and its intestines were dug out! The bones of face, head and body were all dug away! There's only one skin hanging in the Community area to provoke the public! In November 2020, In China,Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. Man kicks a cat into the river China Animal Abuse. The sights of beautiful dogs packed in rusted cages, dropped from the tops of China’s open-sided lorries, occupy a painful spot in my heart. The 20-second-long video filmed by a Taiwanese student named Chen, showed his fellow student, of Chinese nationality, named Lin, . Chinese Woman Gets Plastic Surgery Done on 'Ugly' Pet Cat, Spends £1100 to Get to 'Correct' the Feline's Eyes, Slammed for Animal Abuse. 'It was dehumanising': Jessica Shuran Yu condemns training. They like the way the “blood accumulates in the meat making it juicy and replenished. Cats need their alone time, and sharing close quarters with a dozen others isn't ideal. Pet owner witnesses her cat 'being kicked and beaten by her. Horrific video shows men tying up a hopeless cat and blowing it up before throwing it into some bushes Second black box from crashed plane in China is recovered. Animal Cruelty, cat in washing machine, people, cat, animals, pets, pet, animales, mascotas, gato en la lavadora, gato en lavadora, crueldad animal, abuso animal STOP ANIMAL ABUSE Heartless Yob Puts His Pet Cat into Washing Machine. Around ten million dogs and cats are killed and eaten by humans each year in China. Posted on November 13, 2021 by Michael Broad China is engaged in Draconian anti-Covid measures which are cruel and bewildering to outsiders and animal advocates. Fully conscious, this dog has been boiled alive, then had it's fur scraped off, then still fully conscious, it is being blow torched. Chinese netizens are enraged after a woman was caught throwing a helpless kitten onto the floor and stomping on its head — all because she couldn't get a refund on it. Sun Quanhui is a senior scientific advisor at World Animal Protection. All cats should be protected under anti-cruelty laws, regardless of ownership; There is a link between violence to animals and violence to people; Alley Cat . china stop your dog and cat abuse. China has no law against animal cruelty, despite the growing led to repeated lockdowns in some cities, and about the abuse of animals. Another Cat abuse occurred in China, Chengdu ,Pixian District.